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Astronomers believe telescopes captured birth of black hole or neutron star

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In June 2018, telescopes in Hawaii picked up a bright burst in a galaxy 200 million light-years away. Initially, astronomers believed it was a supernova, a star that explodes at the end of its life. Except this didn’t behave like a supernova should. Now, in a new paper published in the Astrophysical Journal, astronomers say they believe they witnessed the birth of a black hole or an incredibly dense and powerful stellar object known as a neutron star.

Stars are giant balls of gas that are constantly bubbling with activity, mainly fusing hydrogen into helium. As they age, they create different elements. For stars that are roughly five times more massive than our own sun or larger, their core eventually is converted into iron. That’s when fusion stops and the forces that were balancing the inward and outward pressure end. The star explodes. 

The eruption witnessed in June came from a galaxy called CGCG 137-068. Though astronomers were thrilled to have captured a supernova, they were also somewhat perplexed.

For one, it was extremely bright, roughly 10 to 100 times brighter than most supernovas. Also, when a star explodes, it eventually fades, but in this case the star — dubbed AT2018cow, nicknamed “The Cow” — faded much faster than other supernovas. As well, the particles flew out at 30,000 km/s, about 10 per cent the speed of light, which caused it to flare up and fade much faster than other supernovas. And instead of reaching peak brightness in weeks, it did so in days.

This picture shows the optical light image of AT2018cow shortly after it erupted. The light created from the event far outshone its host galaxy. (Giacomo Terreran/Northwestern University)

Either this wasn’t a supernova or it was something that astronomers had never witnessed before. And a team of researchers wanted to solve the puzzle.

The team studied the star in different wavelengths, using x-rays, hard x-rays (those that are 10 times more powerful than ordinary x-rays), gamma rays and radio waves.

“Given how luminous this thing was and how quickly it went to peak, we knew right away we needed a different source of energy than the normal supernovae,” said Raffaela Margutti, an astrophysicist at Northwestern University in Illinois who also led the research. “The Cow started to look very, very different from anything we had ever seen in the x-ray.”

They theorize that stellar debris swirled around the object’s event horizon — a region around a black hole beyond which nothing can escape — creating the incredibly bright glow that was seen in different wavelengths.

This image shows an artist’s impression of a stellar mass supernova explosion. (ESO/M. Kornmesser)

Iair Arcavi, an astrophysicist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who was not involved in the study, says the interpretation is “very interesting.”

“I think it’s a really strong possibility that this is powered by what we call a central engine, so some kind of energy source in the centre. It’s definitely possible,” he said. 

But, he added, this doesn’t mean the case is closed.

“I think there are or will be other suggestions as well. I think this is not the final say in what this was,” he said. “But they did some very serious modelling work and analyzing the observations. As a whole, I think this has been the most comprehensive paper to come out about this object.”

A second possibility

But a black hole isn’t the only explanation.

If a star is massive enough, it can collapse into a black hole. But sometimes they also form a neutron star. These types of stars are the size of a small city, but far more massive than the sun: one teaspoon of the material would weigh 10 million tons. They also have an intense gravitational field. Earth’s escape velocity — the speed at which we can be free of its gravitational pull — is about 11.2 km/s. For a neutron star, it would be 0.4 times the speed of light.

The scientists believe that this could be another explanation for the brightening: that a neutron star could have been pulling in material and brightened as it formed.

Arcavi who is studying a puzzling object of his own — a supernova that shone for six times longer than most — said these sorts of mysterious objects are part of what makes the universe so fun to study.

“I think we’ll solve some of [the mysteries] — maybe not all — and we’ll definitely discover new puzzles,” he said. “And that’s how we move forward.”

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Waterloo drone-maker Aeryon Labs bought by U.S. company for $265M

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Waterloo’s Aeryon Labs has been bought by Oregon-based FLIR Systems Inc. for $256 million, or $200 million US.

The acquisition was announced Monday. 

Dave Kroetsch, co-founder and chief technology officer of Aeryon Labs, says not much will change in the foreseeable future.

“The Waterloo operations of Aeryon Labs will actually continue as they did yesterday with manufacturing, engineering and all the functions staying intact in Waterloo and ultimately, we see growing,” he said.

“The business here is very valuable to FLIR and our ability to sell internationally is a key piece of keeping these components of the business here in Canada.”

Aeroyn Labs builds high-performance drones that are sold to a variety of customers including military, police services and commercial businesses. The drones can provide high-resolution images for surveillance and reconnaissance.

The drones already include cameras and thermal technology from FLIR. Jim Cannon, president and CEO of FLIR Systems, said acquiring Aeryon Labs is part of the company’s strategy to move beyond sensors “to the development of complete solutions that save lives and livelihoods.”

‘A piece of a bigger solution’

Kroetsch said this is a good way for the company to grow into something bigger.

“We see the business evolving in much the direction our business has been headed over the last couple of years. And that’s moving beyond the drone as a product in and of itself as a drone as a piece of a bigger solution,” he said.

For example, FLIR bought a drone company that builds smaller drones that look like little helicopters.

“We can imagine integrating those with our drones, perhaps having ours carry their drones and drop them off,” he said.

FLIR also does border security systems, which Kroetsch says could use the drones to allow border agents to look over a hill where there have been issues.

“We see the opportunity there as something that we never could have done on our own but being involved with and part of a larger company that’s already providing these solutions today gives us access not only to these great applications, but also to some fantastic technologies,” he said.

Aeryon Labs has done a lot of work during emergency disasters, including in Philippines after Typhoon Hagupit in 2014, Ecuador after an earthquake in 2016 and the Fort McMurray wildfire in 2016.

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Inuvik infrastructure may not be ready for climate change, says study

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The Arctic is expected to get warmer and wetter by the end of this century and new research says that could mean trouble for infrastructure in Inuvik.

The study from Global Water Futures looked at how climate change could impact Havipak Creek — which crosses the Dempster Highway in Inuvik, N.W.T. — and it predicts some major water changes.

“They were quite distressing,” John Pomeroy, director of Global Water Futures and the study’s lead author, said of the findings.

Researchers used a climate model and a hydrological model to predict future weather and climate patterns in the region. They also looked at data gathered from 1960 to the present. 

If greenhouse gas emissions continue at their current rate — which Pomeroy said they are on track to do — the study projects the region will be 6.1 C warmer by 2099 and precipitation, particularly rain, will increase by almost 40 per cent.

The study also found that the spring flood will be earlier and twice as large, and the permafrost will thaw an additional 25 centimetres. While the soil is expected to be wetter early in the summer, the study said it will be drier in late summer, meaning a higher risk of wildfires.

John Pomeroy is the director of Global Water Futures. (Erin Collins/CBC)

“The model’s painting kind of a different world than we’re living in right now for the Mackenzie Delta region,” Pomeroy said.

He noted these changes are not only expected for Havipak Creek, but also for “many, many creeks along the northern part of the Dempster [Highway].”

Pomeroy said the deeper permafrost thaw and a bigger spring flood could pose challenges for buildings, roads, culverts and crossings in the area that were designed with the 20th century climate in mind.

He said the projected growth of the snowpack and the spring flood are “of grave concern because that’s what washes out the Dempster [Highway] and damages infrastructure in the area.”

Culverts and bridges may have to be adjusted to allow room for greater stream flows, Pomeroy said. And building foundations that are dependent upon the ground staying frozen will have to be reinforced or redesigned.

Pomeroy said the ultimate solution is for humans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

“This study is the future we’re heading for, but it’s not the future we necessarily have if we can find a way to reduce those gases,” he said.  

“It’d be far smarter to get those emissions under control than to pay the terrible expenses for infrastructure and endangered safety of humans and destroyed ecosystems.”

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DFO tries to allay fishermen’s fears that protected area would impact livelihood

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The two-lane highway along Nova Scotia’s Eastern Shore is dotted with dozens of signs declaring “No Marine Protected Area Here!”

It’s a sign, literally, of organized opposition to a proposed 2,000-square-kilometre marine protected area.

The Eastern Shore Islands area is the first coastal candidate in Canada with an active inshore commercial fishery, albeit a small one with just 150 lobster fishermen. Still, they are a mainstay of the local economy and leading the opposition.

The fishermen fear a marine protected area, or MPA, would automatically lead to so-called no-take zones, barring industrial activities like harvesting.

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans is moving to put those fears at rest.

“We will not be making a recommendation for there to be a zone of high protection within the MPA,” said Wendy Williams, director of DFO Maritimes Oceans Management.

A “No Marine Protected Area Here!” sign is seen along Nova Scotia’s Eastern Shore. (Robert Short/CBC)

Last week, the department presented the results of a draft risk assessment to an advisory committee established to recommend what should or should not be allowed inside Eastern Shore Islands.

The committee was created after the department declared the unspoiled archipelago of hundreds of islands an area of interest. It is the first step on the road to designation as a marine protected area under the federal Oceans Act.

The risk assessment concluded the lobster fishery would not harm the kelp beds, eel grass and cod nursery the federal government wants to protect.

“The predominant activity that takes place there is the lobster fishery. It’s a low-impact fishery. It only operates two months a year, so we feel it’s not necessary to have a no-take,” Williams said in an interview.

“We talked to the advisory committee about that and what we heard and unanimously around the table is that they felt the same way. So in our design going forward we will not be incorporating a no-take zone.”

Fishermen seek assurances

But fisherman Peter Connors is not declaring victory.

“You have to remember this is deathbed conversion,” he said.

As president of the Eastern Shore Fishermen’s Protective Association, Connors represents the 150 active lobster fishermen in the area.

He does not trust DFO and is seeking some sort of legally binding commitment from federal Fisheries Minister Jonathan Wilkinson honouring Williams’s promise.

As president of the Eastern Shore Fishermen’s Protective Association, Peter Connors represents the 150 active lobster fishermen in the area. (Robert Short/CBC)

“I want to know the mechanism that he’s going to use and just how he intends to secure that for future generations,” said Connors. “I don’t want a trust me proposition and I don’t want a temporary reprieve … just because they are facing a lot of opposition now.”

Connors acknowledged a marine protected area on the Eastern Shore could help “Canada’s brand” from a marketing perspective. The country has committed to protecting 10 per cent of its ocean by 2020.

‘Give and take’

Environmentalists have watched in frustration as opposition to Eastern Shore Islands galvanized over the prospect of no-take zones.

Susanna Fuller, senior projects manager for conservation organization Oceans North, urged DFO to eliminate no-take zones from the discussion last year.

“Since it has been such an issue of contention, we are hoping that this gives the community and the fishermen a sense that they are being heard,” said Fuller.

“For this process to go forward there needs to be some give and take.”

While DFO has decided to allow unrestricted lobster fishing inside Eastern Shore Islands, Williams said no precedent has been set.

“Every MPA is different. If people have their expectations raised in any particular way because of what we’re looking at now for this MPA, they really shouldn’t. Everything is unique and we need to look at it that way,” she said.

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