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A year of wild weather: Environment Canada releases the Top 10 weather stories of 2018





Every year, Environment and Climate Change Canada releases its top ten weather stories. And this year, there was no shortage of extreme weather events across the country.

From coast-to-coast-to-coast, virtually nowhere was spared extreme weather in 2018.

But people are most likely remember the raging wildfires that consumed British Columbia, the number one story on the list. ​ 

Though the fire season had a late start, by Aug. 15, the province had issued a state of emergency as 566 fires had ignited.

And they just kept on going.

By the end of August, approximately 12,985 square kilometres were burning in B.C., beating the worst fire season in the province’s history — set only one year earlier —  when 12,161 square kilometres burned.

The disaster didn’t stop at provincial borders.

Smoke from the fires — combined with those from Washington state, Oregon and California — drifted straight across the country. For weeks, more than 10 million Canadians, from B.C. to the Atlantic Provinces, were impacted by the smoke.

In this image taken by NASA’s MODIS satellite on Aug. 24, smoke is seen stretching from B.C. to Newfoundland and Labrador. (NASA/Worldview)

“You didn’t have to see the flames to be impacted,” said David Phillips, senior climatologist at Environment and Climate Change Canada who has been compiling this list for more than 20 years. “There’s no question about it: Hotter and drier and milder winters are sort of greasing the skids to get more of these [fires]. But the smoke… it was so dominant across the country.”

In fact, it was so bad that cities from Kelowna, B.C. — which was in the thick of it — to Winnipeg saw a higher number of days than normal with smoke and haze. Kelowna experienced 290 hours of hazy, smoke-filled air, much higher than the norm of three.

“From a health point of view … to me it was the number one story,” Phillips said.

The fires were a perfect example of how the weather doesn’t have to be in your backyard for you to be affected by it, he said. “You can fight the flames but you can’t fight the smoke.” 

‘Part of a global heat wave’

The heat was another big weather story of 2018.

On the July 1 long weekend, the heat put a bit of a damper on Canada Day festivities in the nation’s capital when the humidex value reached 48 C. Attendance for celebrations in Ottawa was 6,000, down from an expected 20,000.

In Quebec, more than 90 people died of heat-related causes after a stifling heat wave where temperatures sat in the high 30s for several days in August. To compound matters, humidex values in some areas reached into the mid-40s.

Canada wasn’t alone; people straight across the globe were feeling the heat. In Japan, more than 20,000 people were taken to hospital with heat stroke in early July as temperatures soared to 35 C in some areas. More than 70 people died as a result of heat-related causes.

Record heat was also recorded across Scandinavia. Several locations in the Arctic Circle reported temperatures of 30 C or higher.

“It was part of a global heat wave,” Phillips said. “There was no escaping it.”

Other stories include the hot and dry conditions in the Prairies that had devastating effects on agriculture; storms in Ontario that cost the province upwards of $1 billion; the tornadoes in Ottawa-Gatineau on the last day of summer and the floods in B.C. and New Brunswick.

Laurel Wingrove assesses the tornado damage to her home in Dunrobin, Ont., outside of Ottawa after a tornado tore through the area in September. (Kristin Nelson/CBC)

While not directly in the top ten stories, Phillips said that the north isn’t left out in the cold. In fact, he noted the Arctic heat wave, heat in the Yukon and hours of blizzards as just some of the stories for the region.

Phillips said he has noticed big changes with the list over the 23 years he has been compiling it.

“In those early years, it was hard to come up with top ten stories,” Phillips said. “But now it’s hard to pare it down.”

With a rapidly changing climate, he said years from now the weather in 2018 will seem normal.

“I don’t think it will ever be quiet.”

Visit Environment and Climate Change Canada to see the detailed list.


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Top 5 Analytics Trends That Are Shaping The Future





Digital transformation is increasingly becoming the focus for many CIOs around the world today—with analytics playing a fundamental role in driving the future of the digital economy.

While data is important to every business, it is necessary for businesses to have a firm grip on data analytics to allow them transform raw pieces of data into important insights. However, unlike the current trends in business intelligence—which is centred around data visualization—the future of data analytics would encompass a more contextual experience.

“The known data analytics development cycle is described in stages: from descriptive (what happened) to diagnostic (why did it happen), to discovery (what can we learn from it), to predictive (what is likely to happen), and, finally, to prescriptive analytics (what action is the best to take),” said Maurice op het Veld is a partner at KPMG Advisory in a report.

“Another way of looking at this is that data analytics initially “supported” the decision-making process but is now enabling “better” decisions than we can make on our own.”

Here are some of the current trends that arealready shaping the future of data analytics in individuals and businesses.

  1. Growth in mobile devices

With the number of mobile devices expanding to include watches, digital personal assistants, smartphones, smart glasses, in-car displays, to even video gaming systems, the final consumption plays a key role on the level of impact analytics can deliver.

Previously, most information consumers accessed were on a computer with sufficient room to view tables, charts and graphs filled with data, now, most consumers require information delivered in a format well optimized for whatever device they are currently viewing it on.

Therefore, the content must be personalized to fit the features of the user’s device and not just the user alone.

  1. Continuous Analytics

More and more businesses are relying on the Internet of Things (IoT) and their respective streaming data—which in turn shortens the time it takes to capture, analyze and react to the information gathered. Therefore, while analytics programspreviously were termed successful when results were delivered within days or weeks of processing, the future of analytics is bound to drastically reduce this benchmark to hours, minutes, seconds—and even milliseconds.

“All devices will be connected and exchange data within the “Internet of Things” and deliver enormous sets of data. Sensor data like location, weather, health, error messages, machine data, etc. will enable diagnostic and predictive analytics capabilities,” noted Maurice.

“We will be able to predict when machines will break down and plan maintenance repairs before it happens. Not only will this be cheaper, as you do not have to exchange supplies when it is not yet needed, but you can also increase uptime.”

  1. Augmented Data Preparation

During the process of data preparation, machine learning automation will begin to augment data profiling and data quality, enrichment, modelling, cataloguing and metadata development.

Newer techniques would include supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning which is bound to enhance the entire data preparation process. In contrast to previous processes—which depended on rule-based approach to data transformation—this current trend would involve advanced machine learning processes that would evolve based on recent data to become more precise at responding to changes in data.

  1. Augmented Data Discovery

Combined with the advancement in data preparation, a lot of these newer algorithms now allow information consumers to visualize and obtain relevant information within the data with more ease. Enhancements such as automatically revealing clusters, links, exceptions, correlation and predictions with pieces of data, eliminate the need for end users to build data models or write algorithms themselves.

This new form of augmented data discovery will lead to an increase in the number of citizen data scientist—which include information users who, with the aid of augmented assistance can now identify and respond to various patterns in data faster and a more distributed model.

  1. AugmentedData Science

It is important to note that the rise of citizen data scientist will not in any way eliminate the need for a data scientist who gathers and analyze data to discover profitable opportunities for the growth of a business. However, as these data scientists give room for citizen data scientists to perform the easier tasks, their overall analysis becomes more challenging and equally valuable to the business.

As time goes by, machine learning would be applied in other areas such as feature and model selection. This would free up some of the tasks performed by data scientist and allow them focus on the most important part of their job, which is to identify specific patterns in the data that can potentially transform business operations and ultimately increase revenue.

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Waterloo drone-maker Aeryon Labs bought by U.S. company for $265M






Waterloo’s Aeryon Labs has been bought by Oregon-based FLIR Systems Inc. for $256 million, or $200 million US.

The acquisition was announced Monday. 

Dave Kroetsch, co-founder and chief technology officer of Aeryon Labs, says not much will change in the foreseeable future.

“The Waterloo operations of Aeryon Labs will actually continue as they did yesterday with manufacturing, engineering and all the functions staying intact in Waterloo and ultimately, we see growing,” he said.

“The business here is very valuable to FLIR and our ability to sell internationally is a key piece of keeping these components of the business here in Canada.”

Aeroyn Labs builds high-performance drones that are sold to a variety of customers including military, police services and commercial businesses. The drones can provide high-resolution images for surveillance and reconnaissance.

The drones already include cameras and thermal technology from FLIR. Jim Cannon, president and CEO of FLIR Systems, said acquiring Aeryon Labs is part of the company’s strategy to move beyond sensors “to the development of complete solutions that save lives and livelihoods.”

‘A piece of a bigger solution’

Kroetsch said this is a good way for the company to grow into something bigger.

“We see the business evolving in much the direction our business has been headed over the last couple of years. And that’s moving beyond the drone as a product in and of itself as a drone as a piece of a bigger solution,” he said.

For example, FLIR bought a drone company that builds smaller drones that look like little helicopters.

“We can imagine integrating those with our drones, perhaps having ours carry their drones and drop them off,” he said.

FLIR also does border security systems, which Kroetsch says could use the drones to allow border agents to look over a hill where there have been issues.

“We see the opportunity there as something that we never could have done on our own but being involved with and part of a larger company that’s already providing these solutions today gives us access not only to these great applications, but also to some fantastic technologies,” he said.

Aeryon Labs has done a lot of work during emergency disasters, including in Philippines after Typhoon Hagupit in 2014, Ecuador after an earthquake in 2016 and the Fort McMurray wildfire in 2016.


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Inuvik infrastructure may not be ready for climate change, says study






The Arctic is expected to get warmer and wetter by the end of this century and new research says that could mean trouble for infrastructure in Inuvik.

The study from Global Water Futures looked at how climate change could impact Havipak Creek — which crosses the Dempster Highway in Inuvik, N.W.T. — and it predicts some major water changes.

“They were quite distressing,” John Pomeroy, director of Global Water Futures and the study’s lead author, said of the findings.

Researchers used a climate model and a hydrological model to predict future weather and climate patterns in the region. They also looked at data gathered from 1960 to the present. 

If greenhouse gas emissions continue at their current rate — which Pomeroy said they are on track to do — the study projects the region will be 6.1 C warmer by 2099 and precipitation, particularly rain, will increase by almost 40 per cent.

The study also found that the spring flood will be earlier and twice as large, and the permafrost will thaw an additional 25 centimetres. While the soil is expected to be wetter early in the summer, the study said it will be drier in late summer, meaning a higher risk of wildfires.

John Pomeroy is the director of Global Water Futures. (Erin Collins/CBC)

“The model’s painting kind of a different world than we’re living in right now for the Mackenzie Delta region,” Pomeroy said.

He noted these changes are not only expected for Havipak Creek, but also for “many, many creeks along the northern part of the Dempster [Highway].”

Pomeroy said the deeper permafrost thaw and a bigger spring flood could pose challenges for buildings, roads, culverts and crossings in the area that were designed with the 20th century climate in mind.

He said the projected growth of the snowpack and the spring flood are “of grave concern because that’s what washes out the Dempster [Highway] and damages infrastructure in the area.”

Culverts and bridges may have to be adjusted to allow room for greater stream flows, Pomeroy said. And building foundations that are dependent upon the ground staying frozen will have to be reinforced or redesigned.

Pomeroy said the ultimate solution is for humans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

“This study is the future we’re heading for, but it’s not the future we necessarily have if we can find a way to reduce those gases,” he said.  

“It’d be far smarter to get those emissions under control than to pay the terrible expenses for infrastructure and endangered safety of humans and destroyed ecosystems.”


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