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Choline Is Crucial for Liver Health

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Choline, found in ample amounts in egg yolks, was first discovered in 1862.1 Since then, we’ve learned that this is a truly essential nutrient for a healthy brain, nervous system and cardiovascular function. It’s particularly crucial during fetal development,2 so choline requirements rise exponentially in pregnant women.3

Importantly, choline is used in the synthesis of phospholipids in your body, the most common of which is phosphatidylcholine, better known as lecithin, which is required for the composition of your cell membranes.4 As noted in a 2013 paper:5

“Humans must eat diets containing choline because its metabolite phosphatidylcholine constitutes 40 to 50 percent of cellular membranes and 70 to 95 percent of phospholipids in lipoproteins, bile and surfactants …

[It] is needed to form acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter; its metabolite betaine is needed for normal kidney glomerular function, and perhaps for mitochondrial function; and it provides one-carbon units, via oxidation to betaine, to the methionine cycle for methylation reactions.

There is a recommended adequate intake for choline (about 550 mg/day), but choline intake in the diet has been estimated to vary by as much as threefold — the lowest quartile and the highest quartile of intake were approximately 150 mg and 500 mg/day choline equivalents, respectively…”

Studies also stress its importance for liver health, and it may actually be a crucial key for the prevention of fatty liver disease — including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is largely driven by high-sugar diets as opposed to excess alcohol consumption.

Nine in 10 Americans Are Deficient in Choline

Although a small amount of choline is produced by your liver,6 the rest must be supplied through your diet. Unfortunately, an estimated 90 percent of the U.S. population are deficient in choline.7 People who are at particularly high risk for deficiency include:

  • Pregnant mothers — Choline is required for proper neural tube closure,8 brain development and healthy vision.9 Research shows mothers who get sufficient choline impart lifelong memory enhancement to their child due to changes in the development of the hippocampus (memory center) of the child’s brain.10Choline deficiency also raises your risk of premature birth, low birth weight and preeclampsia.
  • Athletes — During endurance exercise, such as a marathon, choline levels deplete. Choline supplementation before severe physical stress has demonstrated a number of advantageous effects in studies.11,12 Choline supplementation may also reduce body mass without side effects.13
  • High alcohol consumersExcess alcohol consumption can increase your need for choline and raise your risk of deficiency.14
  • Postmenopausal women — Lower estrogen concentrations in postmenopausal women increases their risk of organ dysfunction in response to a low-choline diet, so their requirements are higher than those of premenopausal women.15
  • Vegans — Choline supplementation may also be important for this demographic, as they have an elevated risk for deficiency if they avoid choline-rich foods such as eggs and meats.16

Choline Is Required for Optimal Health

Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient for human health by the Institute of Medicine in 1998.17 It’s required for:

  • Cell messaging, by producing cell-messaging compounds18
  • Cell structure; making fats to support the composition of your cell membranes
  • Fat transport and metabolism, as choline is needed to carry cholesterol from your liver, and a choline deficiency could result in excess fat and cholesterol buildup19
  • DNA synthesis
  • Nervous system health (choline is necessary for making acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in healthy muscle, heart and memory performance)

Studies have linked higher choline intake to a range of benefits, including a decreased risk for heart disease,20 a 24 percent decreased risk for breast cancer,21 and the prevention of NAFLD. In fact, choline appears to be a key controlling factor in the development of fatty liver, likely by enhancing secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in your liver.22

Choline Plays Crucial Role in NAFLD

In a 2010 article, Chris Masterjohn, who has a Ph.D. in nutrition, writes:23

“After studying the relevant literature and tracing it much further back in time than anyone else ever bothers to, I’ve come to the conclusion that neither fat nor sugar nor booze are the master criminals here.

Rather, these mischievous dudes are just the lackeys of the head honcho, choline deficiency. That’s right, folks, it’s the disappearance of liver and egg yolks from the American diet that takes most of the blame [for rising rates of fatty liver disease].

More specifically, I currently believe that dietary fat, whether saturated or unsaturated, and anything that the liver likes to turn into fat, like fructose and ethanol, will promote the accumulation of fat as long as we don’t get enough choline.”

The curious link between choline and fatty liver emerged from research into Type 1 diabetes. Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that lecithin in egg yolk (which contains high amounts of choline) could cure fatty liver disease in Type 1 diabetic dogs. They later found choline alone provided the same benefit. Masterjohn goes on to explain:24

“We now know that choline is necessary to produce a phospholipid called phosphatidylcholine (PC) … a critical component of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle, which we need to make in order to export fats from our livers.

The amino acid methionine can act as a precursor to choline and can also be used to convert a different phospholipid called phosphatidylethanolamine directly into PC. Thus, the combined deficiency of choline and methionine will severely impair our abilities to package up the fats in our livers and to send them out into the bloodstream.”

Diets High in Saturated Fat Increase Your Choline Requirement

According to Masterjohn, while saturated fats are beneficial to health, they increase your choline requirement — and to a greater degree than unhealthy fats such as corn oil (about 30 percent greater) — so in the absence of sufficient choline, even these healthy fats can contribute to fatty liver. In a nutshell, choline is a necessary ingredient that helps minimize liver fat, no matter what the cause.

While dietary fats can contribute to fatty liver if and when choline levels are low, the greatest culprit in NAFLD is excessive sugar, especially fructose, as all of it must be metabolized by your liver and is primarily converted into body fat opposed to being used for energy like glucose. According to Masterjohn:

“In 1949 … researchers showed that sucrose and ethanol had equal potential to cause fatty liver and the resulting inflammatory damage, and that increases in dietary protein, extra methionine, and extra choline could all completely protect against this effect.25

Conversely, much more recent research has shown that sucrose is a requirement for the development of fatty liver disease in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) model …

The MCD model produces not only the accumulation of liver fat, but massive inflammation similar to the worst forms of fatty liver disease seen in humans. What no one ever mentions about this diet is that it is primarily composed of sucrose and its fat is composed entirely of corn oil! …

The picture that is clearly emerging from all of these studies is that fat, or anything from which fat is made in the liver, such as fructose and ethanol, are required for the development of fatty liver. But in addition to this some factor — overwhelmingly, it appears to be choline deficiency — must deprive the liver of its ability to export that fat.”

More recent research26 has also discovered evidence of epigenetic mechanisms of choline, which also helps explain how choline helps maintain healthy liver function.

Healthy Choline Sources

In the ’70s, many doctors told their patients not to eat eggs, or at least egg yolks, in order to minimize their cholesterol and saturated fat intake. In reality, both of those are good for you, and eggs are one of the most important health foods available.

A single hard-boiled egg can contain anywhere from 113 milligrams27 (mg) to 147 mg28 of choline, or about 25 percent of your daily requirement, making it one of the best choline sources in the American diet.29 Only grass fed beef liver beats it, with 430 mg of choline per 100-gram serving.30 As noted in the Fatty Liver Diet Guide:31

“Eggs rank very high on the list of foods that are high in either lecithin, which converts to choline, or in choline itself. Note that this is the egg yolks only, not egg whites, which only have traces of this micronutrient.

Choline is essential in the production of phosphatidylcholine, a fat molecule called a phospholipid. But wait! Isn’t all fat bad? No — especially if it is essential to overall health and in particular, liver health. Simply put — if you don’t have enough choline, your liver can’t move out fat. It instead begins to collect within your liver, creating fatty liver.”

Other healthy choline sources include wild-caught Alaskan salmon,32 organic pastured chicken, vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and asparagus (one-half cup contains about 31 mg, 24 mg and 23.5 mg of choline respectively), shiitake mushrooms and krill oil. One 2011 study33,34 found 69 choline-containing phospholipids in krill oil, including 60 phosphatidylcholine substances.

Phophatidyl choline (PC) is one of the best sources of choline and although eggs have a fair amount, krill oil per volume is higher as about 40% of krill oil is PC. Only about 13% of PC is choline so two krill oil capsules will provide about 400 mg of PC but around 50 mg of choline. This is one of the reasons why I personally take about 10 krill oil capsules a day which provide about 500 mg of choline.

Are You Getting Enough Choline to Protect Your Health?

While a dietary reference intake value has not yet been established for choline, the Institute of Medicine set an “adequate daily intake” value of 425 mg per day for women, 550 mg for men35 and 250 mg for children36 to help prevent a deficiency and potential organ and muscle damage.

Keep in mind, however, that requirements can vary widely, depending on your overall diet, age, ethnicity37 and genetic makeup. As noted in one paper,38 “People with one of several very common genetic polymorphisms in the genes of choline metabolism are more likely to develop hepatic dysfunction when deprived of choline.”

Also, as discussed above, eating a diet high in (otherwise healthy) saturated fats may actually increase your choline requirement. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, athletes and postmenopausal women also need higher amounts.

If you already have NAFLD, you’d be wise to pay careful attention to choline as well. A study on the severity of 664 people with NAFLD found that decreased choline intake significantly increased their symptoms, including fibrosis (the thickening and scarring of connective tissue).39

The tolerable upper intake level for choline is 3.5 grams per day. Side effects of excessive choline include low blood pressure, sweating, diarrhea and a fishy body odor.40 As mentioned, eggs are a primary source of choline in the diet; with more than 100 mg of choline per egg yolk, they’re an easy way to ensure sufficiency. That said, supplementation is an option if you’re concerned about getting enough choline from your diet.

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Bill Gates: Third Shot May Be Needed to Combat Coronavirus Variants

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With more than 40 million Americans having received at least the first dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, a third dose may be needed to prevent the spread of new variants of the disease, Bill Gates told CBS News Tuesday.

Gates’ comments come amid growing concern that the current vaccines are not effective against the more contagious Brazilian and South African variants.

Pfizer and Moderna have stated that their vaccines are 95% and 99% effective, respectively, against the initial strain of COVID. However, some scientists have questioned those statements. Additionally, the World Health Organization and vaccine companies have conceded that the vaccines do not prevent people from being infected with COVID or from transmitting it, but are only effective at reducing symptoms.

Gates told CBS Evening News:

“The discussion now is do we just need to get a super high coverage of the current vaccine, or do we need a third dose that’s just the same, or do we need a modified vaccine?”

U.S. vaccine companies are looking at making modifications, which Gates refers to as “tuning.”

People who have had two shots may need to get a third shot and people who have not yet been vaccinated would need the modified vaccine, explained Gates. When asked whether the coronavirus vaccine would be similar to the flu vaccine, which requires yearly boosters, Gates couldn’t rule that out. Until the virus is eradicated from all humans, Gates said, additional shots may be needed in the future.

AstraZeneca in particular has a challenge with the variant,” Gates explained. “And the other two, Johnson & Johnson and Novavax, are slightly less effective, but still effective enough that we absolutely should get them out as fast as we can while we study this idea of tuning the vaccine.”

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is funding the studies being conducted in Brazil and South Africa, CBS News said. The foundation has also invested in the AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson and the Novavax vaccines, which are being tested against new variants. Once the AstraZeneca vaccine is approved, the Global Alliance for Vaccine Initiative or GAVI, founded by Gates, will distribute it globally.

“Gates continues to move the goalposts,” said Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., chairman and chief legal counsel of Children’s Health Defense. “Meanwhile the strategies he and others have promoted are obliterating the global economy, demolishing the middle class, making the rich richer and censoring vaccine safety advocates, like me.”

Kennedy said that the exclusive focus on vaccines has prevented the kind of progress required to actually address and recover from the pandemic:

“From the pandemic’s outset, clear-headed people familiar with the challenges inherent in the vaccine model have understood that the path out of crisis would require multiple steps. Those steps would need to include the development and/or identification of therapeutic drugs, the sharing of information among doctors to hone improved treatment models that reduce infection mortality rates below those for flu, and the kind of broad-spectrum long-term herd immunity that protects against mutant strains and that only derives from natural infection.”

Instead, Gates and vaccine makers are proposing a lifetime of boosters, supporting insufficient testing to determine safety and failing to address the inadequate monitoring of vaccine injuries, Kennedy said.

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Children’s Health Defense.

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Young nurse suffers from hemorrhage and brain swelling after second dose of Pfizer’s COVID-19 vaccine

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(Natural News) A 28-year-old healthcare worker from the Swedish American Hospital, in Beloit, Wisconsin was recently admitted to the ICU just five days after receiving a second dose of Pfizer’s experimental mRNA vaccine. The previously healthy young woman was pronounced brain dead after cerebral angiography confirmed a severe hemorrhage stroke in her brain stem.

Her family members confirmed that she was “breaking out in rashes” after the vaccine. She also suffered from sudden migraine headaches, and got “sick” after taking the second dose of the vaccine. At the very end, she lost the ability to speak and went unconscious. The migraines, nausea, and loss of speech were all symptoms of a brain bleed and brain swelling, something her family did not understand at the time, and something nobody would expect after vaccination.

While on life support, neurologists used angiography to image the damage inside the brain. They found a subarachnoid hemorrhage, whereas a bulging blood vessel burst in the brain, bleeding out in the space between the brain and the tissue covering the brain. The ensuing swelling cut off oxygen to the brain and caused brain death. On February 10, 2021, Sarah reportedly had “no brain activity.” Some of the woman’s organs are now being procured, so they can be donated to other people around the world.

Doctors warn FDA about COVID vaccines causing autoimmune attacks in the heart and brain

Experimental COVID-19 vaccines may cause inflammation along the cardiovascular system, leading to heart attack and/or stroke. This serious issue was brought forth to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by Dr. J. Patrick Whelan, M.D., Ph.D. and further confirmed by cardiothoracic surgeon, Dr. Hooman Noorchashm, M.D., Ph.D. The two doctors warned that a recently-infected patient who is subject to COVID-19 vaccination is likely to suffer from autoimmune attacks along the ACE-2 receptors present in the heart, and in the microvasculature of the brain, liver and kidney. If viral antigens are present in the tissues of recipients at the time of vaccination, the vaccine-augmented immune response will turn the immune system against those tissues, causing inflammation that can lead to blood clot formation.

This severe adverse event is likely cause of death for the elderly who are vaccinated despite recently being infected. There is no adequate screening process to ensure that this autoimmune attack doesn’t occur. The elderly are not the only people vulnerable to vaccine injury and death. Pfizer’s experimental COVID-19 vaccine could be the main cause behind the sudden death of Sarah Sickles, a 28-year-old nurse from Wisconsin. The Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System has captured five permanent disabilities in Wisconsin, 58 ER visits, and eleven deaths in just one month. This is the first case in Wisconsin of someone under 44 years of age suffering from severe COVID-19 vaccine side effects and death. There are now more than 1,170 deaths recorded in the U.S. related to the experimental mRNA vaccines, a reality that the FDA and CDC continue to ignore.

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Powering hypersonic weapons: US armed forces eyeing dangerous 5G tech

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(Natural News) Much of the conversation surrounding the benefits of 5G is geared toward the consumer side of the technology. People will be able to download videos at lightning speed and will be more connected than ever, proponents claim, although there are serious questions regarding its safety. However, some of the most important 5G applications are not civil at all – the technology will be used extensively in the military domain.

Some of its military uses are outlined in the Defense Applications of 5G Network Technology report, which was published by the Defense Science Board. This federal committee gives scientific advice to the Pentagon. Their report states: “The emergence of 5G technology, now commercially available, offers the Department of Defense the opportunity to take advantage, at minimal cost, of the benefits of this system for its own operational requirements.”

The 5G commercial network that is being built by private companies right now can be used by the American military for a much lower cost than if the network had been set up exclusively for military purposes.

Military experts expect the 5G system to play a pivotal role in using hypersonic weapons. For example, it can be used for new missiles that bear nuclear warheads and travel at speeds superior to Mach 5. These hypersonic weapons, which travel at five times the speed of sound and move a mile per second, will be flying at high altitudes on unpredictable flight paths, making them as hard to guide as they will be to intercept.

Huge quantities of data need to be gathered and transmitted in a very short period in order to maneuver these warheads on variable trajectories and allow them to change direction in milliseconds to avoid interceptor missiles.

5G for defense

This type of technology is also needed to activate defenses should we be attacked by a weapon of this type; 5G automatic systems could theoretically handle decisions that humans won’t have enough time to make on their own. Military bases and even cities will have less than a minute to react to incoming hypersonic missiles, and 5G will make it easier to process real time data on trajectories for decision-making.

There are also important uses of this technology in combat. 5G’s ability to simultaneously link millions of transceivers will undoubtedly facilitate communication among military personnel and allow them to transmit photos, maps and other vital information about operations in progress at dizzying speeds to improve situational awareness.

The military can also take advantage of the high-frequency and short-wavelength millimeter wave spectrum used by 5G. Its short range means that it is well suited for smart military bases and command posts because the signal will not propagate too far, making it less likely that enemies will be able to detect it.

When it comes to special forces and secret services, the benefits of 5G are numerous. Its speed and connectivity will allow espionage systems to reach unprecedented levels of efficiency. It will also make drones more dangerous by allowing them to identify and target people using facial recognition and other methods.

Like all technology, 5G will also make us highly vulnerable. The network itself could become an attractive target for cyber-attacks and other acts of war being carried out with cutting-edge weaponry. In fact, the 5G network is already viewed as critical infrastructure and is being carefully protected before it is even fully built.

While the focus on 5G’s dangers to human health and the environment is absolutely warranted, it is also important not to lose sight of the military implications of 5G. After all, it is not just the United States that is developing this technology for military purposes; our enemies, like China and other countries, are also making great strides in this realm.

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