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Smelling Lavender Really Can Relax You

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Anxiety is a worldwide problem, and in the U.S. it affects almost one-fifth of the adult population.1 Yet prescription treatments for anxiety are far from ideal and often present undesirable side effects.

SSRI antidepressants, often prescribed for anxiety despite questions about their effectiveness for this use,2 put patients at clear risk of suicide, mania and bipolar disorder, birth defects, weight gain and sexual dysfunction.3

When combined with other drugs, SSRIs can put patients at risk for serotonin syndrome4 and are increasingly suspected of contributing to osteoporosis.5 They’ve even been linked to a heightened risk of developing the dreaded intestinal infection, Clostridium difficile.6 Moreover, SSRI antidepressants have a “clinical effect delay” — it may take weeks for them to produce any response.”7

Benzodiazepines like Xanax, Ativan, Valium and Lorazepam, the drug class widely prescribed for anxiety, are also not ideal. On top of sedation and motor impairment, benzodiazepines put patients at risk of addiction and, according to some reports, dementia.

Moreover, they account for as many as one-third of overdose deaths. A treatment for anxiety without the side effects of SSRI antidepressants and benzodiazepines would help many.

A New Study Shows Lavender’s Effectiveness in Relieving Anxiety

Investigators at Kagoshima University in Japan recently studied the effect of linalool, a component of lavender oil, in mice and found a significant reduction in anxiety without impaired motor coordination. Their results appeared in the October 23 issue of Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.8

How could the researchers detect anxiety in the mice they were studying? The mice were put in a “light/dark box” in which they could choose between adjoining light and dark compartments. Mice with less anxiety spent more time in the lighted chamber, engaged in “exploratory behavior” said the researchers.

The researchers also put mice treated with linalool in a maze that consisted of two “open arms” and two “closed arms.” Again, mice with less anxiety spent more time engaged in “exploratory behavior” — in this case exploring the “open arms” parts of the maze said the researchers.

Linalool as Effective as Benzodiazepines in Study

Kagoshima University researchers compared the behavior of linalool-exposed mice to those exposed to nothing and those exposed to diazepam, a benzodiazepine commonly known as Valium. Mice exposed to linalool had roughly the same anxiety reduction as those on diazepam but they had no accompanying motor impairment as seen with benzodiazepines.

When the mice exposed to linalool were placed on a rotating bar, they could keep from falling off the bar for as long as control mice who had been treated with nothing.9 This, say the researchers, implies they experienced no significant motor impairment from the linalool.

This is not the first time linalool has performed as well as benzodiazepines in reducing anxiety. In 2010, a group of researchers in Germany writing in the journal Phytomedicine found that a lavender based preparation:10

“… is as effective as lorazepam in adults with GAD [general anxiety disorder]. The safety of silexan [a lavender based compound that was used in the study] was also demonstrated. Since lavender oil showed no sedative effects in our study and has no potential for drug abuse, silexan appears to be an effective and well tolerated alternative to benzodiazepines for amelioration of generalized anxiety.”

Aromatherapy Proved Effective in Study

In determining the anxiety reduction benefits of linalool, researchers at Kagoshima University also confirmed the effectiveness of aromatherapy, a mechanism that is still called into doubt by mainstream medicine despite its years of successful use. Here is how the researchers describe the way mice were exposed to linalool:11

“Linalool odor exposure was performed in a custom-made odor chamber. A piece of 2 cm × 2 cm filter paper treated with … linalool was placed at each of the four corners of an acryl box … A mouse was placed into an acryl cage with a wire netting cover … and was placed at the center of the odor chamber.

Mice were unable to access the odor source directly, but were exposed to odorized air. In this odor chamber, mice were exposed to linalool odor for 30 min[utes].”

To confirm that the drug effects were through the olfactory system and not a different means, researchers disrupted the ability to smell in some mice who would be used for control purposes, producing anosmic or the inability to smell. Effects from linalool were not observed in these anosmic mice who could not smell it, confirming the olfactory system as the route of transmission.

Researchers also found that linalool was mediated through GABA receptors, as benzodiazepines are, and not through serotonin (5HT) receptors which are used by SSRI antidepressants. Again, linalool closely approximates the action of benzodiazepines but without motor impairment, which is a major drawback to their use. That is good news for anyone who wants to feel a little less anxious without becoming fatigued, sedated or experiencing muscle weakness.

Other Lavender Actions Unlocked

Linalool may also have pain reduction properties (analgesia) speculate the researchers at Japan’s Kagoshima University, because it activates calcium channels which regulate aspects of pain processing:12

“In addition to the odorant receptors, T-type calcium channels (TTCCs) are also affected by linalool … Because the TTCCs contribute to the generation of action potentials in olfactory sensory neurons … the modulation of TTCCs by linalool may also contribute to linalool odor- induced analgesia.”

In an earlier linalool study in mice, researchers at Kagoshima University explored similar, pain mediating functions:13

“Various folk remedies employ certain odorous compounds with analgesic effects. In fact, linalool, a monoterpene alcohol found in lavender extracts, has been found to attenuate pain responses via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and oral administration.

However, the analgesic effects of odorous compounds mediated by olfaction have not been thoroughly examined. We performed behavioral pain tests under odourant vapor exposure in mice. Among six odourant molecules examined, linalool significantly increased the pain threshold and attenuated pain behavior …

These findings reveal central analgesic circuits triggered by olfactory input in the mammalian brain and support a potential therapeutic approach for treating pain with linalool odor stimulation.”

Linalool, because it is administered through the sense of smell, as aromatherapy, may be useful for those who struggle with “oral or suppository administration of anxiolytics, such as infants or confused elders,” says Kagoshima University researcher Hideki Kashiwadani.14

Lavender Aromatherapy Can Ease Presurgical Anxiety

Studies that confirm the anxiety reduction problems of lavender oil are especially good news for the many people who fear medical procedures, especially surgery. Side effect-free treatments like lavender are immensely preferable to the benzodiazepines, painkillers and anesthetics usually used for “pre-op” fear.

These less natural treatments can often prolong recovery from medical procedures and surgery through longer hospital stays and slower wound healing. Here is what researchers wrote in Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology:15

“Aromatherapy may offer a simple, low-risk and cost-effective method of reducing preoperative anxiety … Given the adverse effects of preoperative anxiety and the simplicity of aromatherapy, health care providers should consider the use of preoperative lavender aromatherapy in the ambulatory surgery setting, in which a short preoperative waiting time necessitates a convenient method of anxiety reduction.

While the researchers, writing in Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, affirm linalool’s role in reducing anxiety, they note that linalyl acetate, a different component found in the lavender plant, has pain relieving properties and “is recognized as a narcotic.” Lavender has been successfully used in a variety of medical settings say the researchers:16

“Lavender aromatherapy was shown to reduce anxiety in patients in the coronary intensive care unit (ICU), dental office, before open-heart surgery, general surgery, intrauterine device (IUD) insertion, during peripheral venous cannulation, and after myocardial infarction and percutaneous coronary intervention.”

The use of lavender aromatherapy may be especially valuable “in the ambulatory surgery setting, in which preoperative waiting time is brief and a convenient method of reducing anxiety is needed,” write the researchers.

Lavender Oil Fights Bacterial Infections Without Causing Resistance

Lavender has another important action –– it combats bacteria. According to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center website, lavender oil has “broad-spectrum antibacterial activity” including against the dangerous bacteria S. aureus and multidrug-resistant E. coli.17

This is especially important as the problem of antibiotic resistance grows from the overuse of antibiotics in medical settings and in livestock. Antibiotic resistance has become a major threat to public health worldwide, and the primary cause for this man-made epidemic is the overprescription and widespread misuse of antibiotics.

They are routinely given to food animals on cramped “factory farms” to keep disease from breaking out. Antibiotics are also irresponsibly prescribed to humans for viral infections such as the flu, for which they have no effect, a practice that should stop.

Many Antibiotics Have Been Removed From the Marketplace

Despite all that is known about the dangers of antibiotic resistance, antibiotics are added to personal hygiene consumer products such as soaps, wipes, gels and sprays, as well as household products like dish detergent and even laundry detergent. Even cutting boards have been treated with antimicrobials.

Products with antibiotics added to them do not get you “cleaner” than soap and water but allow consumer companies to call their products “new” and “improved” and charge more for them. Meanwhile, 2 million people a year get antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the U.S. and 23,000 die,18 making antibiotic-resistant bacteria one of our most pressing public health problems.

For example, in 2014, mega poultry producer Foster Farms was linked to a 29-state outbreak of drug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in a striking example of the dangers of antibiotic resistance.19 Six-hundred thirty-four people were sickened, and federal lawmakers urged that the operations be shut down.

Lavender oil’s ability to fight bacteria and especially antibiotic-resistant bacteria is also great news for anyone who has experienced any side effect from taking antibiotics, especially those containing fluoride. In fact, many antibiotics containing fluoroquinolone (flouride) have been removed from the marketplace due to their horrific side effects.

Omniflox,20 Raxar,21 Trovan,22 Zagam23 and Tequin24 were withdrawn from the market several years ago. Levaquin’s maker, Janssen/Johnson & Johnson, quietly halted production of this antibiotic in December 2017, telling an Indianapolis TV station in July 2018 that it had done so out of “safety concerns.” However, the drug hasn’t been pulled from shelves yet, so it’s possible it could still be available until 2020.25

However, Cipro, Avelox and Floxin continue to be prescribed for a variety of infections, both major and minor. Cipro is by far one of the favorites, despite new FDA warnings about serious side effects associated with the drug, including neurological problems such as delirium and memory impairments, as wel as serious dips in blood sugar, and my advice to you is to avoid it.

Lavender Oil Also Fights Fungal Infections

Lavender also fights fungal infections. Lavender oil’s antifungal properties are great news because various fungi are becoming as tough to treat as antibiotic resistant bacteria. Already, there are relatively few antifungal drugs, and they oftentimes have side effects.

The rise of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria, fungi and viruses has become a widespread problem due to the overuse of antibiotics in both animals and humans. Scientists tested lavender oil and also found it to be lethal to a range of skin-pathogenic strains known as dermatophytes, as well as various species of Candida.

Dermatophytes cause infections of the skin, hair and nails, and Candida species can cause mucocutaneous candidosis, also known as thrush. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):26

“Invasive candidiasis is a common health care-associated infection: It’s estimated that approximately 46,000 cases of healthcare-associated invasive candidiasis occur each year in the U.S. …

Candidemia, the most common form of invasive Candidiasis, is one of the most common bloodstream infections in the United States, The incidence of Candidemia is approximately 14 per 100,000 people in the Baltimore area and 10 per 100,000 people in the Atlanta area, but the incidence and the distribution of Candida species causing infection vary substantially by geographic location and patient population.”

Other Lavender Oil Benefits Are Medically Recognized

Lavender oil also accelerates wound healing, protects against neural damage and oxidative stress, protects against heart attacks through its antioxidant effects and can inhibit seizures.27 It has even improved spatial performance in an Alzheimer’s disease model and reduced falls in the elderly.28

With linalool’s newly confirmed ability to reduce anxiety, we again see the superiority of older, safer treatments. Time and time again medical science comes back to the age-old truth that simple, holistic remedies like lavender oil provide benefits where the drug companies cannot, and with few or no side effects.

If more people knew the truth about how easy it is to maintain your health naturally without the so-called “help” of the pharmaceutical industry, the U.S. might be able to escape the failed paradigm of “sickness management” that now passes for health care.



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Natural Whipped Body Butter Recipe

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diy natural body butter recipe homemade gift

I love making natural beauty products as gifts, and homemade body butter is one friends and family always love to receive. It’s a gift that is easy to personalize with custom natural scents (and even can help with sleep if you add a little magnesium!).

Put the finished product in a cute glass jar with ribbon and a tag, and you have a thoughtful and beautiful gift that will make them feel pampered for months.

Even if you aren’t typically the type to make your own gifts, this recipe is easy for DIY beginners and fun to make. Give it a try!

Why Body Butter?

Body butter is thicker than lotion and contains less water. This means it takes longer to penetrate the skin (don’t walk on a floor barefoot after applying body butter to your feet!) but it’s very moisturizing and softens even those tougher, very dry spots like the knees, elbows, and feet.

By whipping body butter, you get the best of both worlds since it is soft and easy to apply but still extra moisturizing.

How to Make Body Butter

This new recipe has similar ingredients to these homemade lotion bars, but removes the beeswax and whips the mixture as it cools to create a cloud-like lotion that is extremely nourishing!

This body butter is great for babies or sensitive skin, and scents can be added to make it a custom gift for anyone (or to keep for yourself!).

My current favorite is a peppermint-scented version for the holidays, but I also like a citrus/lavender combination.

Homemade Whipped Body Butter Recipe

The combination of shea and cocoa butter with two nourishing oils makes a highly moisturizing combination, but whipping the mix helps it go on smoothly without being oily.

Body Butter Ingredients

Optional: Cocoa butter, shea butter, and mango butter are all interchangeable in this recipe. If you only have one or two on hand, feel free to substitute or play with different proportions.

Body Butter Instructions

  1. In a double boiler or glass bowl, combine all ingredients except essential oils.
  2. Bring to medium heat and stir constantly until all ingredients are melted.
  3. Remove from heat and let cool slightly. Add essential oils if using.
  4. Move to fridge and let cool another hour or until starting to harden around the edges but still somewhat soft.
  5. Use a hand mixer to whip for 10 minutes until fluffy.
  6. Return to the fridge for 10-15 minutes to set.
  7. Store in a glass jar with a lid and use as you would regular lotion or body butter. If your home stays above 75 degrees, it may soften and need to be kept at the fridge, but it will stay whipped at a temperature lower than that.
  8. Keep for yourself, or give away! Enjoy!

Body Butter FAQ

This recipe has been around for a while, so here are some of the questions you’ve asked the most:

Will it be greasy?

Body butter is definitely more emollient and has a heavier texture than lotion does, but after a few minutes it will penetrate the skin and lose any greasy feel.

How long will it last?

Stored away from moisture and light this homemade body butter should last 6-8 months. Using a spoon or spatula to dip rather than your fingers will extend the life of the body butter.

Why is mine not white like yours?

Shea butter especially can vary in texture and color depending on the brand. Not to worry, it will still work just as well!

Will this clog my pores?

Nope! This body butter actually did wonders on my cystic acne back in the day.

Other Body Butter Variations

Mastered the recipe? Try mixing up your own combinations! Here are some ideas to get you started:

Ever made your own body butter? Want to try this recipe? Share below!

How to make simple and luxurious whipped body butter with shea butter and natural oil



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Canada’s first successful heart transplant was 50 years ago this week. Here’s how it happened

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In mid-November 1968, a team of cardiologists at St. Michael’s Hospital received a call they had been waiting on for months.

An 18-year-old man had been badly injured in an accident, they learned. He was ruled brain dead, but his heart was still beating.

It was a tragedy that set into motion the first successful heart transplant in Canadian history, which marks its 50th anniversary on Saturday.

“We never had any hesitation,” said Dr. John K. Wilson, now 93. “We were ready. The team was ready.”

A year earlier, in 1967, Wilson had identified a potential recipient for a heart transplant, Charles Perrin Johnston, who had been suffering from heart failure and appeared headed toward an early death.

“I told him at the time, almost facetiously, ‘Hey, maybe we can give you a new heart in a year’s time,'” Wilson remembers telling Perrin Johnston.

Charles Perrin Johnston lived for six years after receiving a new heart in 1968. At the time of his death, no transplant recipient had lived longer. (St. Michael’s Hospital)

The golden age of cardiology

In December 1967, the South African doctor Christiaan Barnard performed the world’s first human-to-human heart transplant — an earlier transplant had been attempted using a chimpanzee heart — though the recipient lived for just 18 days after the surgery.

In Canada, several hospitals were jockeying to become the first to replicate the operation, though early attempts were met with fast deaths or incapacitated patients.

In May of 1968, Albert Murphy became the first Canadian to receive a new heart, though he died within hours of the operation, performed at the Montreal Heart Institute.

In the following months, Toronto General and Toronto Western hospitals also attempted heart transplants, though none of the patients recovered.

In the wake of multiple failures and amidst a growing media frenzy around the race between the three Toronto hospitals, the team at St. Michael’s took their shot at the potentially life-saving operation on Nov. 17, 1968.

The transplant was to be performed by Dr. Clare Baker, with Wilson providing support during Perrin Johnston’s recovery.

Dr. Clare Baker was the surgeon who carried out the operation. Baker died in 2010. (St. Michael’s Hospital)

“We had to have confidence. And if anybody gave the image of being a confident performer, a confident surgeon, a capable surgeon, it was Dr. Clare Baker,” Wilson remembered about his colleague, who died in 2010.

That confidence and preparation ultimately translated into a successful surgery.

“He left the operating room like any other patient, with a beating heart,” Wilson said.

Perrin Johnston went on to live six years with his new heart. At the time of his death, he was the longest lived male heart transplant recipient in the world.

When doctors later asked him how they did it, “maybe we said more prayers at St. Michael’s Hospital,” Wilson would say with a laugh.

Surgery inspired future doctors

Shortly after Perrin Johnston’s transplant, Dr. Robert Chisholm arrived at St. Michael’s as a medical student. He says the experience of watching Dr. Wilson and Dr. Baker during their breakthrough years altered the course of his career.

“That two month experienced changed my life,” said Chisholm, who started his tenure at St. Mike’s without a medical specialty. He has now worked as a cardiologist at the hospital since the 1970s.

“It was a very exciting time because the world was kind of watching us,” he added. “We had pretty good success in those early days.”

Dr. Robert Chisholm worked with Dr. John K. Wilson and Dr. Clare Baker as a student in the late 1960s. The experience inspired him to pursue a speciality in cardiology. (Martin Trainor/CBC)

While the techniques used in cardiology have advanced considerably since the 1960s, Chisholm says the approach taken by Wilson and Baker should serve as a powerful lesson to their modern contemporaries.

“The key to their success, I think, was judgment,” he said. “And that still applies today.”

Failed surgeries following breakthrough

Following Perrin Johnston’s surgery, Baker, Wilson and the St. Michael’s cardiology team travelled around the world, sharing their findings at medical conferences filled with doctors still struggling to perform the operation.

In total, Wilson and the team carried out five heart transplants at St. Michael’s, though the last two were unsuccessful.

They stopped performing transplants after those failures, due to advancements in other areas of cardiology and a need for anti-rejection medications that were not yet developed.

Still, Wilson looks back fondly on his years at the cutting edge of the specialty, knowing that his team’s success informed the work of doctors around the world, and elevated the profile of his hospital as a result.

“We were pretty proud that we were able to present a successful transplant,” he said. “We showed that it can be done.”

According to the latest figures from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, 170 Canadian received heart transplants in 2015.



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Trying to bridge the ‘genomic divide’: Lack of Indigenous data a challenge for researchers

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A prominent U.S. senator turned to genetic testing last month to try to prove her claim that she had Indigenous ancestry.

But in assessing Elizabeth Warren’s DNA, the geneticists were forced to use samples from Mexico, Peru and Colombia because there were no samples from American Indigenous peoples in the reference databases. 

Because the data is missing, Indigenous geneticists Krystal Tsosie of Vanderbilt University and Matthew Anderson of Ohio State University argue that Warren’s test results, which showed Native American ancestry six to 10 generations ago, are a reach.

Many more researchers have joined the discussion regarding Warren’s DNA test results, weighing in on the problems inherent in using genetic databases to unearth Indigenous ancestry.

Indigenous data is missing because “Native American groups within the U.S. have not chosen to participate in recent population genetic studies,” wrote Carlos Bustamante, the geneticist studying Warren’s DNA. That information gap for Indigenous groups exists around the world, including Canada. 

“The Warren news was a distraction from the real work,” said Laura Arbour, one of the lead scientists for the Silent Genome project recently funded by Genome Canada and Genome British Columbia. 

Arbour and her colleagues are trying to develop strategies to better engage Indigenous communities in genomic research.

She describes a growing “genomic divide” that reflects the apparently insatiable appetite among people with a European background to give their DNA to large databases in return for predictions regarding future health and well-being.

Precision medicine

Bridging this “genomic divide” will allow Indigenous people to benefit from a future with precision medicine, says Arbour.

The term precision medicine refers to the use of genomic data to predict which drug will work best for each person.

But precision medicine cannot serve Indigenous people if their reference data is missing.

The lack of representation of Indigenous genomes in large databases reflects a general wariness in that group caused in part by historical cases of genetic research gone wrong. 

One study considered by leading geneticists including Roderick McInnes, former institute director in the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, as a game changer involved the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations on Vancouver Island.

The Nuu-chah-nulth have a high frequency of rheumatoid arthritis. The research team collected DNA samples from approximately half of the First Nations members to study the genetic basis for the disorder.

The genetic determinants of rheumatoid arthritis weren’t found, but that wasn’t the big problem. Researchers sent the DNA samples to external facilities for genetic ancestry studies without the knowledge or consent of the participants.

That action created concern around privacy and possible exploitation through the use of the genetic data for commercial gain, Tsosie and Anderson wrote in a piece posted on The Conversation.

Positive relationships

On the other hand, there are examples of positive relationships between Indigenous groups and non-Indigenous genetic researchers. 

Members of the Gitxsan nation in British Columbia, for instance, told Arbour and her colleagues about the high prevalence of sudden cardiac death in their community.

The Gitxsan not only initiated the research into the genetic cause for this disease but also helped supervise the work through advisory and governance committees.

When geneticists were assessing U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren’s DNA, they had to use samples from Mexico, Peru and Colombia because there were no samples from American Indigenous peoples in the reference databases. (Charles Krupa/Associated Press)

With that co-operative relationship, the research team found the genetic basis for the prevalence of Long QT syndrome, which can cause sudden cardiac death, in the Gitxsan. A gene mutation was found to be responsible for disrupting normal cardiac rhythm. The Gitxsan could then be effectively treated for Long QT syndrome after that discovery.  

Arbour also sees a need to customize the practices for DNA collection in Indigenous communities so that they maintain control.

One little-known aspect about most genetic testing projects, such as the 1000 Genomes Project or 23andMe, is that they, not the donor, retain ownership of the sample.

Indigenous leaders don’t want this to happen in studies of their people.

DNA obtained from an Indigenous individual should be considered “on loan” to the researcher just for the purpose of the specific research project, says Arbour. Ownership of the sample should be retained by the individual with the future potential to be stored in a “tribal-controlled DNA bank,” she says.

Calls for Indigenous leadership

Indigenous leaders have long recognized the need for Indigenous scientists to take ownership of the research conducted with their DNA.

Writing in the Hill Times last month, Natan Obed, president of the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, a national, non-profiit organization representing 60,000 Inuit, said that “Inuit are the most researched people in the world — yet with colonial approaches to research … our role is imagined as marginal and of little value.”

He also recently renewed his call for Inuit leadership in the three major Canadian research agencies: the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.  

Laura Arbour, one of the lead scientists for the Silent Genome project recently funded by Genome Canada and Genome British Columbia, and her colleagues are trying to develop strategies to better engage Indigenous communities in genomic research. (Brad Lyle, Genome BC)    

Building capacity for Indigenous leadership in genomic research takes time. 

But real change could come through the work of programs like SING, which stands for the Summer Internship for Indigenous Peoples in Genomics.

This educational program initiated at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in 2011 and sponsored by multiple agencies including the National Institutes of Health was geared primarily for Indigenous students in a university undergraduate or graduate degree program in the U.S. but has since spread to Canada and New Zealand. 

The SING workshops aim to give Indigenous students interested in genetic science additional skills and knowledge that would help them move into advisory and leadership roles within genetic research. The workshops of approximately 20 participants have been held annually at multiple U.S. university venues, most recently in Seattle earlier this year.

Katrina Claw, a former SING participant and now a leader of the program in the U.S., says there have been participants from 44 First Nations, including mostly students who are interested in genomic, social and political sciences. 

The SING training workshops include basic scientific methods in DNA sequencing and analysis along with tutorials on the principles of informed consent and ethics relating to DNA data sharing. 

Faculty positions

The Indigenous leader of SING Canada, Kim TallBear, an associate professor in the Faculty of Native Studies at the University of Alberta, says that genomics research must also be taught with the view of correcting the history of disciplinary mistakes made by scientists.

A significant proportion of SING participants enter the program with a background in genomic science or the social and political sciences and with the intention of learning about Indigenous genomics from a “bioethical and decolonizational perspective,” said TallBear.

The goal of the SING workshops is starting to be realized. According to TallBear, Anderson is another great example of someone of Indigenous descent who started with SING as a graduate student, came up through the ranks to become an assistant professor and is already leading discussions around genomic research in Indigenous communities.



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